Roman empire dating system
Marius capitalised on the lack of opportunities for the poor and began a movement towards a permanent professional army.
Coupled with the depletion of traditional sources of men, the Republic began to resort to the raising of armies not for itself, but through the personalities of generals, making troops more loyal to single men than to the state.
Hannibal's fame comes directly from his feats: the most notable of which are crossing the Alps, defeating the Romans, defeating the Romans again, and then, defeating the Romans again (the Battles of Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae).
However, though the Carthaginians won battles by performing spectacular martial feats, the Romans sailed to Africa and crushed Carthage's primarily mercenary army, ending with Carthage's surrender and subjugation to Rome.
Republican Rome had a "constitution" in the same sense that Britain today has one.
The laws were not codified in a single document, but encompassed hundreds of years of tradition.
Messianic expectations at the time of Jesus existed even in Rome.
For example, the prophecy that "a savior would come out of Judea" was popular in the Roman Empire; so popular that the biographer Suetonius saw fit to mention it in his De Vita Caesarum in 121 C. However, Suetonius identified the savior as the Emperor Vespasian The first hints of Italian civilization appeared around 5,000 BCE, as Neolithic farmers began to settle the peninsula.
The Second is famous for the marching of Hannibal through the Alps and into Italy.The Roman Empire was a post-antiquity superpower that ruled most of Europe, North Africa and parts of the Middle East from roughly the 1st century BCE. The last remnants of the Roman Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire) fell to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century.Originating in Italy, the Roman Empire represented the direct successor to the Roman Republic, which had already established the Roman city-state as a dominant force in the West a couple centuries earlier.By 1500 BCE, the northern “Terramaricoli” culture was exporting mineral supplies from the Alps to the pastoral, migratory Apennine culture occupying the center of the peninsula.As these cultures drew close through trade, Mycenaean trade exposed the Italians to proto-Greek culture.